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It is a complex population of different species of animals and plants associated with them, from food dependency and competition intraspecific and interspecific biological. Biocenosis is a living part of the ecosystem. The term was introduced by learning German zoologist Karl Möbius in 1877. There are biocenose materials (eg. Biocenosis fish pond, orchard, field) and the natural biota (eg. The sea, rivers, meadows, peatlands). Each biocoenosis is characterized by a specific trophic structure of different food. In biocoenosis we can distinguish three interdependent group of organisms: producers, consumers and decomposers. The team of plant organisms, which creates a biocenosis call phytobicenosis and animal - zoocenosis. Biocenosis characterized by high durability over time, if not change the conditions of abiotic component. With long-term and major changes in the abiotic environment demonstrate adaptability.
This is the mass of organic matter, which is part of the animal or plant. It is expressed in units called. fresh weight (i.e., weight natural organisms) and dry weight (the weight of anhydrous). Biomass is used in a whole range of renewable energy technologies. Currently in Poland biomass used in the power industry it comes from two industries: agriculture and forestry. This is generally a straw or wood, usually fast-growing willow. During combustion, the CO2 emissions are equal to the amount of the compound which assimilated the plant during growth. Accordingly, the balance of carbon dioxide to the environment is 'zero'. And a product of combustion, ash or does not have to be disposed of, since it is an excellent fertilizer. Poland produces annually approx. 25 million tons of straw, of which rots or is burned on the fields 8 - 12 million tons. In 1984. biomass plant covered 13% of global energy production, including Canada 7% of energy needs, and the US 4% of needs. In 1990. the share of biomass in the world's energy production was 12%. In general, from 1 ha of arable land are harvested 10-20 t of biomass annually, the equivalent of 5 - 10 tons of coal - biomass.
It is a biological entity that occupies a significant portion of the Earth's surface and is characterized by uniformity characteristics. It is a large area with similar climate, where there is a characteristic for him, vegetation and animal world. Typical biomes are: taiga, tundra, savannahs, deserts, grasslands, tropical forests, coniferous forests, deciduous forests. Specific biome are separated by transition zones of different widths. The term was introduced by the science FE Clements in 1916.
This biological factors which are the living elements of the environment eg. plants, microorganisms, animals, affecting indirectly or directly on living organisms and inanimate part of the environment, ie. on abiotic factor. They result from the interaction of individuals of a particular species (depending Intra) or populations of different species (biological interaction). Organisms outside adapt to the physical environment, also adapt the environment to suit the necessities of life. Causing constant physical and chemical changes inanimate matter, as a result of new compounds to the environment and energy sources. Jobs soil microorganisms may be an example of the impact of organisms on each other, depend on them in the soil nutrients, which in turn are taken up by plants. The interaction also occurs between plants, manifested in competition for light, water or nutrients. There is also the influence of animals on the plant, e.g. some of which improve soil structure (such as earthworms), other mediate dust and other plants.
It is a homogeneous environment, which inanimate part of the ecosystem, which is characterized by peculiar species of living organisms, adaptable to the specific ecological conditions of the area. An example might be a river habitat, which is the river bed of bottom sediments and water flowing in it. Biotope inhabited by a specific biocenosis creates an ecosystem, ie. ecological unit occurring at steady state. The team biotope abiotic factors (light, temperature, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, etc.) Is transformed by the impact of the activities of plants and animals occurring in it, for example. Peat lakes. There are terrestrial habitats and aquatic habitats.
It is a team living beings, which are characterized by the same hereditary characteristics.
It is based on a physical and chemical organic and inorganic compounds that occur between organisms and their environment. These include water cycle, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. The main source of elements infiltrating various ecosystems is human activity, in addition to natural weathering processes that take place under the influence: influence of water and substances contained therein; temperature changes; organic factors (biological properties).
Direction in ethnology and explaining the origin of the doctrine of manifestations and patterns of culture-specific areas, in the light of their environmental properties (organic). Is adaptive in the exploitation of the environment.
Prefix for environmental problems.
This sensitivity to external environmental factors and other stimuli stress creative
Great ecological destruction, loss of ecological balance, the loss of species and / or natural ecosystems. It can be caused by natural factors such. Fires, landslides, volcanic eruptions. Causative agents can also act human civilization, eg. Drying, hydration land, industrial by pollutants, destruction of habitats like. Each of these factors causes multiple effects, for example. Industrial dust pollute the atmosphere, absorb solar radiation, clog the stomata of plants and animals inhalation and people pollute the water, change the structure and soil reaction.
They are environmental stimuli that cause a change of state and / or direction of development of the organism or its intensity, which leads to changes in the subject. They are so strongly modifying incentives living conditions. The environmental factors include the physical-chemical factors (temperature, light, oxygen, water, minerals, carbon dioxide) and biological properties.
It is the totality of the factors (eg. Space, light, food) necessary for the development of a particular species (animal or plant). There are niches food and habitat.
  • In the niche of food different species play in the ecosystem of different functions, although occupy the same space. They belong to other levels of nutrients, for example. In the lake some species of fish are predators, and the second feed on plants.
  • Niche habitat is characterized by the fact that different species belong to the same level tract, performing the same function in the ecosystem. While inhabit different habitats, eg. Different species of Myriapoda.
Addressing the same niche by two species lead to competition between them.
Science correlation interaction of organisms with their habitat abiotic (physical) and biotic (other organisms, including human beings). Broadly Ecology is the science of order and disorder in nature and the consequences of this order and disorder for the existence of the biosphere and man.
Field dealing with issues of ecology ecosystem functioning anthropogenic environmental interactions social, natural and abiotic processes together with their balancing. This includes the relationship between the shaping of the artificial environment (urban) in which human lives and the environment.



It is a system of links between all occurring in a given area living organisms and the conditions in which they live. It is a way of coexistence in the conditions in your area. Ecosystem is the basic unit functional in nature.




It is a transition zone between two or more different ecosystems which are in the neighborhood where coexist neighboring biocenoses organisms such as: ekoton the edge of the forest which is between the forest and meadow. Normally, such a zone is characterized by increased biodiversity, as well as the density and biomass of organisms and specific biological function.




Learning about toxic properties and poisoning the environment as a result of human activity.
Ecotype arises from the long-term effects of different environmental factors. It is one of the varieties populations of the same species of animals or plants, resulting from adaptation to life in other environments. The population of the same species that live in different environmental conditions are quite different morphological features (eg. the shape, size, color), and control of certain physiological processes.
Deterioration of the natural environment caused by natural disturbance of natural structures and mechanisms, for example. impoverishment in species composition, soil and air pollution, droughts, erosion, etc. Man, introducing into the environment a significant amount of chemicals containing sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals, interferes with the process the circulation of these elements and the flow of energy, thereby creating an ecosystem loses its ability to self-regulation. Environmental degradation includes soil degradation (eg. Decrease in fertility, pH change), water degradation (change in the composition and quantity of mineral salts, temperature change) and degradation of the atmosphere (eg. Dust and changing the composition of the atmosphere).
The concept of education and upbringing of society in a spirit of respect for the natural environment in accordance with the slogan "think globally - act locally". Environmental education is also defined as a psycho-pedagogical process effects on humans in order to shape its environmental awareness. Includes various forms of activities aimed at promoting knowledge about nature, raising environmental awareness, develop sensitivity, promotion of specific behaviors beneficial to the environment. The main recipient of universal school and after-school children and youth. "The primary objectives of environmental education are: understanding the motives and ways to protect the environment, manufacturing ability to perceive phenomena in ecosystems, prediction and evaluation of certain consequences of the observed natural phenomena and human actions, shaping the emotional relation to specific objects and phenomena in the human environment."
It is the ability of the subject to adapt to specific, occurring disturbances in the environment he lives in. Such factors that determine the tolerances are: temperature, light, contamination, moisture and the supply of air, the concentration of mineral salts, and acidity. With tolerances of the organism bind two of law:
  • Right tolerance Shelford is the interval between the lowest (minimum life), and the highest value (maximum of life) of a given environmental factor, under which the particular organism can live and function efficiently. In the middle of the tolerance range is the optimum ecological, or range of values ​​that are most conducive to orgasm. After crossing the border points (minimum, maximum), which is outside the tolerance range, the body can not exist and dies.
  • Liebig minimum law, which assumes that the development of an organism depends largely on the factor that appears in the environment in the smallest amount. He was named an ingredient that limits the development of the individual.
It is a process of increase fertility water reservoirs, resulting in the massive development of phytoplankton, emergent and submerged vegetation. This process leads to the accumulation of sediments in the form of septic tank sludge. Excessive eutrophication is treated as an impurity, as it causes adverse changes in the ecosystem (eg. The lake), such as loss of oxygen to enable the development of anaerobic bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfide, which in turn destroys lives at the bottom of reservoirs. The main role of eutrophication have phosphates. It contributes to the eutrophication of lakes aging.
Fair Trade is a trading partnership based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. helps to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions and defending the rights of marginalized producers and workers in the Global South. organizations Fair Trade, with the support of consumers, are actively involved in supporting producers, awareness raising in society and lead campaigning for changes in the rules and practices on the conventional market internationally. Production and sales of Fair Trade goods takes place accordance with these principles. Wherever possible, they are verified by independent and trustworthy systems.
This movement of people and organizations, based on the slogan Trade not Aid (trade instead of aid), whose purpose is to support community development through the implementation of the Southern countries and to promote fair trade relations.
The term used for a specific product certification system of fair trade, which is managed by Fairtrade International (FLO Int.). Develops terms of trade for importers, exporters and retailers.
This organization managing the Fairtrade certification system. It is an umbrella organization for 20 Initiatives Licensing (which promote Fairtrade and issue licenses to companies to use the Fairtrade mark on products for consumption) and 3 Producer Networks from Africa, South America and Asia (these are associations recognized by FLO for structures representing farmers and workers, which voluntarily join Fairtrade certified producers).
Field of science, dealing with man and his environment. It aims to study the individual species wise man as the subject of a number of processes at the biological level (species, environmental) and artificial (made by the same man: culture, social structure, culture, social structure, transformed elements of the environment) - Nature + Culture + man. According to the researchers can not obtain a full picture of rational man without examining its surroundings.
Part of ecology deals with the functioning of the teams of a higher order, combining ecosystems. The human ecology of landscape ecology examines the environmental conditions in which there is a specific human population. It is the basis of modern town planning and urban planning.





It is the study, analysis and evaluation of the natural environment in order to observe the changes taking place in it. It can be run on a global (world), national and local. It also includes forecasting environmental changes and assess the effectiveness of its methods of protection, consisting of continuous or periodic repetitive measurement of specific physical parameters and observation of the characteristics, properties of water, soil and air. Monitoring any changes in ecosystems allows you to make appropriate decisions for the protection of the environment, while long-term measurement results are the basis for long-term forecasting environmental change and warning about possible risks. The source of information on the environment, in particular, state environmental monitoring (Law "Environmental Protection Law", Journal of Laws 2001.62.627), is a system of measurements, assessments and forecasts of the environment and the collection, processing and dissemination of environmental information. State environmental monitoring is obtained on the basis of monitoring information in the following areas: air quality, water quality of inland surface and groundwater and internal waters and territorial sea waters, soil quality, noise, radiation and electromagnetic fields, the state of natural resources, including forests , types and quantities of substances or energy into the air, water, soil and land use, waste production and management.
The coordinator of the State Environmental Monitoring is the Chief Inspector of Environmental Protection (CIEP).
This is a farm producing organically grown agricultural products that rely on the use possible of the natural methods of production without spoiling the biological balance. Agricultural production should be conducted in accordance with the principle of sustainable development, that is when natural mechanisms of activation of agricultural production using natural means of production and ensuring the sustainability of soil fertility and plant health and animal species.
In particular, using:
  • crop rotation and other natural methods to maintain or increase biological activity and soil fertility,
  • organic fertilizers, pesticides and animal feed agents obtained by chemical synthesis of non-industrial,
  • seed and propagating, which is obtained from plants, which is what least one generation (in the case of perennial crops, two growing seasons) cultivated with organic methods of behavior,
  • the choice of species and varieties of plants and species and breeds of animals including their natural resistance to disease.
The term food produced by organic farming methods with attention to eliminating the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Ecological methods of food production to ensure the protection of public health and the environment and provide a balanced system in terms of:
  • ecological - does not burden the environment to a greater extent than natural ecosystems,
  • economic - is largely independent of external inputs,
  • social - to preserve and develop agriculture and rural areas.
Producers and processors of organic food are obliged to designate their products certified.

The transfer of rights biological ecology to study modern cities, as well as studies of social behavior towards the environment.
It is socio-economic development based on ecological criteria. Economic development is based on the exploitation of renewable resources (solar, wind, crops, farm animals, etc.), without causing damage to the environment, taking into account natural conditions and protecting the basic ecological processes. The main task of sustainable development is to strive to preserve the ecological balance in ecosystems while ensuring the well-being of present and future generations. This involves ensuring a certain quality of the environment, ensuring quality desired state of health of the population, rationalization of natural resources, as well as making ecological developments.
Protecting the Earth against the loss of thermal energy (through the emission) through from the atmosphere gases and water vapor. This term is used today, however, primarily to determine the temperature rise in the Earth's atmosphere as a result of alleged (but not uncontested) the impact of human activity in connection with production of heat and carbon dioxide, with simultaneous increase in cloud cover, obstructing the emission of excess heat.